Title : Circadian typology, a bridge between caffeine consumption and psychological distress : A correlation elicited by mediation analysis among young sudanese adults.
Caffeine’s wakefulness-promoting and sleep-disrupting effects are well established, yet whether caffeine affects human circadian timing is unknown. Also, Evidence suggests evening-type individuals have a higher risk of reporting psychological distress. However, less is known regarding the underlying processes that mediate this association. This study aimed to investigate whether chronotype would mediate the association between Caffeine consumption and psychological distress through either the direct or indirect effect of the mediation model.
Materials & Methods:
The cross-sectional study conducted in among young adults – al-neelain university. Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to assess chronotype , Kessler 10-item Questionnaire (K-10) for psychological distress and Caffeine was addressed in the context of amount (in milligrams), frequency and time separating bed time. CMacKinnon’s four-step procedure was employed to examine the mediation effect, while Hayes PROCESS macro (model 4) was used to perform the mediation analysis.
Among the participants (n = 303), the mean age of the participants was (22.71±2.49) years. 72.2% of participants were low amount caffeine consumers (0-200mg/day). The mean for chronotype (MEQ) was (52.12±9.71) and neutral type comprised most of the population circadian typology (58.1%). Most of the individuals were severely psychologically distressed (42.2%) .multiple regression analysis showed that Increased Caffeine consumption was negatively associated with MEQ scores(β=-2.49, P<0.01), Indicating that increased Caffeine consumption predicted evening chronotype. In addition, MEQ scores was negatively associated with psychological distress while controlling for caffeine amount and self-rated health(β= -.1136, P<0.05). Which showed the negative association between chronotype and psychological distress. Finally, the results of bias-corrected percentile bootstrap method presented that the total effect was positively significant (β=1.538, P<0.05, SE=.7518 95% CI=[0.0583 – 3.0173], mainly as a completely indirect path between caffeine consumption and psychological distress via chronotype (MEQ) score. ( β=0.2838, SE=0.1658, 95% CI=[0.026 – 0.657]). Caffeine frequency before bed was also significantly positively associated with higher levels of psychological distress after controlling for chronotype (MEQ scores) and self-rated health. Β=1.246, SE=0.393, P<0.01, 95% CI=[0.4737 – 2.018].
We found a dose-dependent lengthening of the circadian period by caffeine which completely Mediated the association between Caffeine consumption and psychological distress. Although timing apart from sleeping and frequency of consumption before bed didn’t affect circadian typology, it had a direct deleterious effect on psychological well-being. Reduction of caffeine consumption is advised and Interventions for the enhancement of circadian typology (morning typology) to prevent and reduce psychological distress should be prioritized to medical students who are prone to eveningness.
Audience Take Away
- Regulate caffeine consumption in a manner that doesn’t disturb circadian preference
- Reduce the amount of caffeine consumption and restrict its timing away from bed time
- Practice beneficial behaviors that positively affect circadian typology
- Reducing caffeine consumption will enhance daytime function, academic and clinical performance for medical students, recent graduates and medical interns by reducing the risk for mental distress and subsequently enhance their quality of life
- Yes, and that’s by studying patterns of students circadian preference and how do their psychological well-being is subsequently affected and also to add on or edit educational policies to satisfy students variations and ensure optimal student, intern academic and clinical performance
- Yes, and that’s by constructing a randomized clinical trials addressing caffeine effect on circadian rhythm on molecular basis and to objectively address caffeine consumption by a caffeine consumption diary and by blood levels of caffeine. Along with studying functional Genomics of circadian rhythm