Title : Auditory Responsive Naming and Visual Confrontation Naming in Geriatrics with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease.The criteria for mild cognitive impairment for person with memory loss but without dementia given by Petersen et al., 1991 were memory issue, abnormal memory for age, general cognitive function preserved rather than memory deficit, unaffected daily activities for living, not diagnosed as dementia.
Naming is primary aspect of language which is being assessed majorly through visual confrontation naming task. Semantic memory deficit is common in persons with cognitive deficits. The study performed with persons with Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using Boston naming test (BNT) states that MCI patients did not show significant difference in total scores but showed higher difference in semantic error compared to controls (Willers, 2008).
The existing research focuses on naming problems in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease where as there is dearth of evidences focusing on naming in patients with cognitive impairment. Hence the current study focuses on individuals with mild cognitive impairment. The study attempts to find the visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming in geriatrics with mild cognitive impairment.
Participants within the age range of sixty and above were selected for the study. Literate individuals with minimum high school graduation were included in the study. Individuals with hearing loss, visual impairment and neurological disorders were excluded. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) was administered to evaluate the cognition level for the participants. MMSE is a thirty point questionnaire which includes domains such as orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall and language. Based on the scores of MMSE the participants were classified into three groups, Group A -no cognitive impairment; Group B -mild cognitive impairment ; Group C- severe cognitive impairment .
Visual confrontation naming and auditory confrontation naming tasks were administered in all the participants. In visual confrontation naming task participants were presented with a visual stimulus and asked to name the word. For assessing auditory responsive naming description of an item was given based on the exact dictionary definition and the participants were instructed to name the item based on the description. In case of difficulty in naming, phonemic and semantic cues were provided. The word list used for visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming was selected from Western Aphasia Battery. The response time for the two tasks administered was noted. Correct responses without cues were scored as2 and with cues were scored as 1. A score of 0 was assigned for incorrect responses. The responses were analyzed statistically.
The result shows that there is a significant difference in response time and overall score between groups. Participants with mild cognitive impairment presented with longer response duration than normal participants and shorter response duration than participants with severe cognitive impairment. The overall score for participants with mild cognitive impairment was better than normal.
The study result shows that tasks like auditory responsive naming and visual confrontation naming were sensitive to identify mild cognitive impairment. Hence these tasks can be used in assessment and management of individuals with cognitive impairment.
Audience Take Away:
- Visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming can be used in clinical practice for patients with mild cognitive impairment.
- Mild cognitive impairment patients with visual impairment/hearing impairment can be assessed using auditory responsive naming/visual confrontation naming and management can also be carried out.