Molecular neuroscience is a branch which monitors concepts in molecular biology integrated to the nervous systems of animals. The scope of the topic includes subjects like mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, molecular neuroanatomy, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. As with molecular biology, molecular neuroscience is a relatively new field that is considerably dynamic.
Neurodegeneration is the gradual loss of structure or function of neurons, including their death. Many neurodegenerative diseases includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration of neurons.