Any disorder, disease, or pathological condition affecting the brain (e.g., tumor, stroke, traumatic injury). Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. Pathology highlights elements of disease: Source, methods of growth (pathogenesis), structural changes of cells (morphologic changes), and the result of alterations (clinical manifestations).
Oncology is the learning of spinal cord neoplasms and brain, most of which are (at least eventually) highly terrifying and life-dangerous (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the most examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.