3rd Edition of International Conference on
Neurology and Brain Disorders
- June 24-26, 2019
- Paris, France
Born in Spain in the 1930s and educated at the Sorbonne in Paris in the 1960s, the author has spent half of his life in the United States, where he obtained a doctorate at Boston College and worked at Children’s Hospital (for 3 years) and at the Boston Public Schools (for 20 years), emphasizing executive cross-cultural measures. “FIVE DIGIT TEST” was published in Spanish (2007) and in Brasilian (2013); its three initial situations are now included in Nielsen’s and al. “CROSS-CULTURAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERY” (CNTB), The Clinical Neuropsychologist, January 2018, and validated on majority Europeans and minority immigrants (from Poland, Turkey, Morocco, etc). The test has been studied in languages like Basque, Chinese and subjects with different American languages (Quechuan, Mayan, Zapotecan, etc).
FIVE DIGIT TEST (FDT) is a non-threatening screener of neural dysfunction using a lexicon of five quantities (in pre-readers, non-English speakers and in speakers of indigenous, regional or foreign languages. FDT includes two tasks of automatic descriptive naming (decoding homologous groups of digits such as one 1, two 2s, three 3s, etc) or counting groups of “one” to “five” stars. Two more tasks represent conflictive naming ( one 4, two 3s, four 1) that require prefrontal executive decisions (like in the Stroop interference, 1935, or in the Bohnen & al 1992 switching Color-Word test. The subject must inhibit the decoding of the face values and do the “counting” of physical signs on part 3; or must alternate between counting and decoding on 10% of the items of part 4). The four naming tasks are administered in about 5 minutes; and the five numbers and quatities do not depend from the years of education. At a memory clinic, examiners tested 36 illiterates over the age of 70 diagnosed as MCI (Minimal Cognitive Impairment); thay also tested 20 healthy illiterates at a recreational civic program (N=56). The four situations of the FDT emphasize latency and multitasking delays in Decoding, Counting, Inhibition, and Alternation. This digital conversion of the Color-Word Stroop and the Bohnen shifting task become easy readable to pre-readers and illiterates and can be used as measures of latency. Other tests administered were: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR); and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Scores at parts 1, 3 and 4 scores of healthy subjects differed beyond the p <.01 level from the scores of questionable dementia and mild dementia. The same happed with the MMSE scores of the two groups. FDT can be used on indigenous, regional and foreign language speakers, and pre-reading and non-reading populations. Its digital contents offer a powerful, non-threatening way to screen large, even non-English speaking non-readers. FDT will help develop educational/medical services for child/adult populations in less developed populations. Co0mparing FDT and Stroop scores, DeCristoforo (2000) found higher asymmetry and kurtosis in the FDT scores of elders, which assures unusually large physical distance between speed or error scores of healthy and clinical groups.