Title : A pilot study to examine the impact of Yoga-based mindfulness intervention (YBM) for older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
Background: Research shows that mindfulness and yoga have been associated with a range of positive outcomes in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aims of the study was to adapt and pilot a mindfulness-based yoga intervention (YBM) for older adults with MCI.
Method: This is a pilot study with pre-post intervention design. The sample consisted of 12 older adults with a diagnosis of any types of mild cognitive impairment that has been received yoga-based mindfulness intervention (YBM). The criterion for Inclusion were (1) having 60 years and above, (2) people who have MCI diagnosed by a neurologist, psychiatrist, geriatrician, the neuropsychologist and through evaluation by saying that they had memory problems confirmed by an informant but without problems in their activities of daily living, 2) with a score < 21 at the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA< 21), According to the level of education 2 points has been considered for patients with less than 8 years of schooling and one point for patients with 8-12 years of schooling , (3) and without dementia according to the criteria of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) a score of 0.5 (4) a score of 19–23 points on MMSE, (5) a score of 2 or more on Ad8 (showing that cognitive impairment is likely). The Exclusion criteria were (1) people who did yoga and/or mindfulness within the last 6 months (2) the presence of a psychiatric clinical diagnosis; or neurological/cerebrovascular condition; (3) presence of a disabling physical illness and (4) presence of a disability that limits and / or impede communication such as major impairments in eyesight, hearing or upper limb motor movements; or other health problem that would interfere with regular yoga and mindfulness practice. Cognitive and physical function, psychological well-being, depressive and anxiety symptomatology have been evaluated before the implementation of the program and at post test through standardized instruments. Participants have been assigned to the Yoga based mindfulness intervention (YBM), for an hours, once weekly for a total of 8 weeks, which has been customized to the needs, health outcomes and level of understanding of MCI participants.
Results: The YBM intervention protocol based on video recording has been adapted. YBM intervention reduced anxiety symptoms at post intervention, which wasn’t statistically significant. There was a significant difference from pre- to post-YBM intervention on the total Technology based daily life activities score (T-ADL) and the recreation subscale. Participants had higher level of cognitive impairment from baseline to posttest intervention which wasn’t significant. Also, scores on both Geriatric depression scale (GDS) and Mindfulness awareness attention scale (MASS) as well as level of well-being were not significantly influenced by the YBM.
Discussion: The results support the feasibility of a YBM Intervention for the management of anxiety symptoms in older adults with MCI. These preliminary findings suggest the potential of mindfulness intervention in improving anxiety symptoms implicated a risk factors for MCI . These data are valuable inputs for a future randomized clinical trial.