Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of progressive disorders that affect the central nervous system (CNS) such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammation plays a critical role in the onset and progression of these injuries. Periodontitis is considered an inflammatory disease caused by oral biofilms around the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to a systemic and chronic inflammatory condition. Among the different types of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis are the most frequently occurring (Hussain et al., 2018). These disorders damage the CNS and trigger rapid microglial activation, the main component of neuroinflammation. Activated microglia produce and secrete inflammatory mediators, such as eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, reactive free radicals, and proteases. Although a well-regulated inflammatory process is beneficial for injured CNS tissue, an excessive inflammatory response can be a source of additional injury and may affect the chronic progression of these diseases (Gao and Hong,2008).
Robust evidences has indicated a correlation between PD and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcome, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. However, the correlation between teeth loss and the risk of neurodegenerative disorders are still under investigation. The conditions of periodontal disease (bacterial infection and chronic inflammation) weaken the blood-brain barrier and pose a risk for cerebrovascular disease. The conditions also cause inflammation in the brain. Periodontal disease may indirectly make neurodegenerative disorders worse through exacerbation of diabetes. Furthermore, tooth loss leads to deterioration of cognitive function. Therefore, it is possible that periodontal disease directly and indirectly exacerbates the condition of these disorders.
What will audience learn from your presentation?
- Learning the importance of oral hygiene and effects of periodontitis on systemic health.
- Audience shall learn about the effects of oral microorganisms on nervous system.
- Along with seeking treatment for neurodegenerative diseases one should consider visiting oral health specialist.