HYBRID EVENT: You can participate in person at Orlando, USA or Virtually from your home or work.

6th Edition of International Conference on Neurology and Brain Disorders

October 24 -26, 2022

October 24 -26, 2022 | Orlando, Florida, USA
INBC 2022

Gerald W. Grass

Speaker at Neurology and Brain Disorders 2022 - Gerald W. Grass
Ketamine Research Institute, United States
Title : A New Methodological Approach to Improve the "Real Word" Effectiveness of Ketamine Infusion Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression


Objective: Ketamine is recognized as a rapidly acting antidepressant; however, discrepancies exist between the "Efficacy" reported in research studies (70-85%) versus significantly lower "Effectiveness" (18.3-45.5%) reported in community-based settings. To offset the "Efficacy-Effectiveness" gap a novel, clinically applicable methodology (RESTORE) was developed to improve both effectiveness and durability.

Here we report the results of a 60-month, retrospective study of 87 patients who received RESTORE for TRD and compare outcomes to community based-studies utilizing the "standard" ketamine infusion.

Methods: Patient eligibility was determined by a three-step patient evaluation and suitability protocol. Patients received 3 infusions over 3 days and were dosed with the amount of ketamine, based on pharmacokinetic modeling, to achieve optimal blood concentrations. The medication was administered intravenously via a multimodal, variable rate infusion over 30 minutes. Following induction, patients received two additional infusions within 3-6 months before entering the maintenance phase. Symptom severity was determined utilizing the Beck Depression Index-II (BDI-II).

Results: 78 of 87 (89.4%) patients completed the 2-phase infusion protocol, of which 88.4% responded and 56.3% remitted by the fifth infusion. This compares favorably to the 18.3-45.5% response and 27.3% remission rate reported in other studies. Most notably, the average period between protocol completion and the need for maintenance infusion was 245 days compared to 26 days with ketamine infusion.

Conclusions: The novel RESTORE infusion protocol represents a clinically applicable methodological approach to ketamine infusion therapy that results in significantly improved effectiveness by 3-fold and response durability by 9-fold compared to the standard ketamine infusion

What will the audience learn from your presentation?

  • What are the expected rates of response and remission following ketamine infusion therapy?
  • What is the therapeutic durability of ketamine therapy in treatment-resistant depression?
  • How to improve the overall effectiveness of ketamine infusion therapy in community-based settings.
  • Where to obtain additional training in the use of ketamine therapy?


Dr. Grass is an Anesthesiologist who served as Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, where the ketamine infusion for depression was developed in 1994. He was the Director of the Yale Pain Medicine Fellowship Program and the Chief of Pain Medicine for the Connecticut Veterans Healthcare Administration. Dr. Grass began utilizing ketamine in 1998 and founded the Ketamine Research Institute in 2015 to pioneer the use of ketamine therapy to treat mood disorders and chronic pain. He established the first comprehensive, international ketamine infusion training program for physicians in 2017, setting standards for the safe and effective administration of ketamine-based therapy for treatment-resistant mood disorders and other related conditions