Resilience to stress is the ability to quickly adapt to adversity. There is evidence that exposure to prolonged stress triggers neuroinflammation what produces individual differences in stress vulnerability. However, the relationship between stress resilience, neuroinflammation, and depressive-like behaviors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term effects of social defeat stress (SDS) on neuroinflammation in the hippocampus and depressive-like behaviors. Male rats were subjected to the SDS paradigm. Social interaction was analyzed 1 and 2 weeks after ending the SDS to determine which animals were susceptible or resilient to stress. Neuroinflammation markers glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, and elevated membrane permeability in astrocytes and microglia, as well as depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test were evaluated in all rats. One week after SDS, resilient rats increased their sucrose preference, and time spent in the floating behavior decreased in the forced swim test compared to susceptible rats. Surprisingly, resilient rats became susceptible to stress, and presented neuroinflammation 2 weeks after SDS. These findings suggest that SDS-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation persists in post-stress stages, regardless of whether rats were initially resilient or not. Our study opens a new approach to understanding the neurobiology of stress resilience. (Bravo-Tobar et. al., 2021. J Neurosci Res, doi: 10.1002/jnr.24902).